Mechanical Basics

What is the Cast Iron?

Iron is one of the Ferrous materials whereas; Cast Iron and Types of Cast Iron are obtained by the combination of Iron and Carbon materials. Due to the carbon percent of about 1.7 to 4.5, the alloy is called Cast Iron. Additional to Carbon, few more compositions that cast iron consist of silicon, manganese, phosphorous, and sulphur

But only due to the 1.7 – 4.75 carbon percentage, the alloy will be called Cast Iron and classified into different types of cast iron.

What is cast iron, different types of cast iron, and advantages of cast iron

What can we learn from this post?

  • Cast Iron Properties
  • Different types of Cast Iron
    • Grey Cast Iron Properties
    • White Cast Iron Properties
    • Malleable Cast Iron Properties
    • Chilled Cast Iron Properties
    • Ductile Cast Iron Properties
  • Composition Table Of Types Of Cast Iron
  • Advantages of Different Types Of Cast Iron
  • Disadvantages of Cast Iron
  • Conclusion
  • Frequently Asked Questions

Also Read:

Cast Iron Properties:

According to the nature of the material, Cast Iron is Brittle so; it has great properties like

  • Casting Properties
  • High compressive strength, and
  • Excellent machinability.

Here are some of the properties of cast iron that is used to select cast iron for various applications. They are

  • Tensile Strength: Cast iron consists of a tensile strength limit of 100 MPa to 200 MPa (Mega Pascal).
  • Compressive Strength: Cast iron consists of a compressive strength limit of 400 to 1000 MPa (Mega Pascal).
  • Shear Strength – Cast iron has a shear strength of 120 MPa (Mega Pascal).

Let us see what are different types of cast iron?

Different Types Of Cast Iron:

Cast iron is classified into different types according to carbon percentage and some other materials quantity. The carbon percentage differs from one metal to another metal whereas; it is the main thing that results in classification of different types of cast iron.

There are 5 different types of cast iron metals, they are as follows

  1. Gray Cast Iron
  2. White Cast Iron
  3. Malleable Cast Iron
  4. Chilled Cast Iron
  5. Ductile Cast Iron

Now, let us read each type of cast iron type and its properties precisely.

1. Gray Cast Iron Properties:

Gray Cast Iron is one of the types of cast iron that has graphite in its micro-structure, due to the presence of graphite it possesses good stiffness and high thermal conductivity. The material compositions are as follows:

  • Carbon – 3 to 3.5 %
  • Silicon – 1 to 2.75%
  • Manganese – 0.4-1.0%
  • Phosphorous – 0.15-1%
  • Magnesium-0.02-0.15
  • Sulphur – 0.02-0.15%

Applications of Gray Cast Iron:

Due to the high stiffness and thermal conductivity, the gray cast iron is used for machine tool bodies, automotive cylinder blocks, engine heads, agricultural Implements, etc.

2. White Cast Iron Properties:

White Cast Iron is one of the types of cast iron that has cementite and pearlite in its microstructure and no graphite is found. Due to the absence of graphite, the white cast iron is hard and brittle. We can say that the white cast iron is difficult to machine and also it has high compressive strength. The compositions of the materials in the white cast iron are as follows:

  • Carbon – 0.15-2.3%
  • Silicon – 0.85-1.2 %
  • Manganese – >0.4 %
  • Phosphorous – 0.2 %
  • Sulphur –>0.12 %
  • Magnesium-0.02-0.01%

Applications of white cast iron:

White Cast Iron is hard and possesses high compressive strength so it is used to manufacture car wheels, rolls for crushing grains, jaw crusher plates, etc.

3. Malleable Cast Iron Properties:

Malleable Cast Iron is one of the types of cast iron that the carbon is combined with the cementite resulting in Malleable Cast Iron. Of course, ductile cast iron is a different type of cast iron but possess a lot of similarities between them. Malleable cast iron has good ductility, fracture toughness, and good machining property. The compositions are as follows

  • Carbon- 2.16-2.9%
  • Silicon-0.9-1.9%
  • Phosporous-0.02-0.15%
  • Manganese-0.15-1.25%
  • Magnesium-0.05%

Applications of Malleable Cast Iron:

Due to the good ductility, malleable cast iron is used for the Hubs of wagon wheels, Small Fittings for Railway Rolling Stock, Pipe Fittings, Door Hinges, etc.

4. Chilled Cast Iron Properties:

The chilled cast iron is another important types of cast iron that consist of compositions like

  • Carbon – 1.8 -4 %
  • Silicon – 1-3 %
  • Phosporous-0.063
  • Manganese-1.04

Applications of Chilled Cast Iron:

Chilled cast iron is used to make the stoves and for making the baking instruments.

5. Ductile Cast Iron Properties:

Ductile Cast Iron does have good ductility and possesses the same properties as malleable cast iron. It is also called Nodular Cast Iron and most important types of cast iron. It has the compositions as follows:

  • Carbon 3.2-3.6%
  • Silicon 2.2-2.8%
  • Manganese 0.1-0.2%
  • Magnesium 0.03-0.04%

And a small amount of phosphorus, sulphur, and copper materials.

Applications of Ductile Cast Iron:

As ductile cast iron has high ductility it is used to prepare the automotive parts, gear houses, wheels, etc.

Compositions Table Of Types Of Cast Iron:

    Type Carbon% Silicon%    Phosporous% Manganese%       Magnesium%
Gray 3-3.5 1-2.7 0.4-1 0.15-1 0.02-0.15
White 0.15-2.3 0.85-1.2 0.2 >0.4 0.02-0.01
Malleable 2.16-2.9 0.9-1.9 0.02-0.15 0.15-1.25 0.05
Chilled 0.8-4 1-3 0.063 1.04 May be a tiny amount
Ductile 3.2-3.6 2.2-2.8 May be tiny portion 0.1-0.2 0.03-0.04

Advantages Of Types Of Cast Iron:

Cast Iron and different types of cast iron are widely using metals for several purposes because of its advantages, the advantages of types of cast iron are

  • The properties of different types of cast iron are very suitable for casting purposes.
  • Due to their brittleness, and ductility (in their types) they can be machined easily and even used as tools to machine the materials.
  • It is used as the beds, carriages for several machine tools and machine for strong foundation and to observe the vibrations.
  • Due to its high thermal conductivity, cast iron and its types are used at high temperature working spaces.
  • They are tough in nature.

Disadvantages of Cast Iron:

Of course, nothing is perfect and everything has its advantages and disadvantages too, even the cast iron does have disadvantages; so the disadvantages of cast iron are

  • Types of cast iron are used for machining purposes also but when we compare the cast iron with other metals like steel, we can say that cast iron possesses poor machinability.
  • Some of the types of cast iron have less brittleness, so at high loads, the cracks develop, and cast iron will fail suddenly.
  • It can be rusted easily and can fail soon.
  • According to the weight, cast iron is heavy when compared to other metals like Steel, Aluminum, etc.
  • Cast Iron cannot be used at sudden loadings.
  • Few types of cast iron like white cast iron and chilled cast iron are not suitable for machining purposes because they are hard and possess high compressive strength.

Conclusion:

Cast Iron is being one of the crucial metal from the beginning of metal era. It is mainly used to bear and observe high strengths. The Cast Iron and types of cast iron (like malleable cast iron, white cast iron, gray cast iron, chilled cast iron, ductile cast iron ) are wide in usage and never let other metals to replace them.

The different types of cast iron applications are depends upon the requirement of the situation and position. So, it will not be a solution to use only single type of cast for all the requirements.

Frequently Asked Questions

The cast iron is one of the types of Ferrous metals that consists carbon as the main composition in its structure. The composition of the carbon in the cast iron is around 1.7 to 4.75. The classification of types of cast iron depends upon the carbon percentage and few other metals.

The properties of the cast iron includes

  • Tensile Strength

  • Compressive Strength, and

  • Shear Strength.

The types of cast iron is depends upon the carbon percentages and few more compositions like Silicon, Phosporous, Manganese, and Magnesium. So, the types of cast iron are

  • Malleable Cast Iron

  • White Cast Iron

  • Ductile Cast Iron

  • Chilled Cast Iron

  • Gray Cast Iron

The advantages of cast iron are
• Easy to machine
• Suitable for Casting Process
• High Thermal Conductivity
• Tough

The disadvantage of cast iron are

  • Poor machinability compare to steel

  • Less brittleness in few cast iron types

  • Not suitable for sudden loadings

  • Easily rustable compared to other metals

  • The uses of cast iron and types of cast iron are wide. Few of its uses are
  • Used as Beds and Carriages for machines.
  • To construct the Automobile Parts, Structures, and Frames.
  • Used in construction of Buildings.
    Cast Iron is famous for its applications in Kitchen items like Utensils, and Pots.
  • It is used to manufacture the Water and other fluid flowing Pipes.
    Cast Iron can be used in the Ships parts like Anchors, etc
  • Types of Cast Iron can be used to produce Bolts and Nuts.

The Malleable Cast Iron is one of the types of cast iron that classified according to the carbon percentage. The composition of the Malleable Cast Iron is

  • Carbon – 3.2 to 3.6
  • Silicon – 2.2 to 2.8
  • Manganese – 0.1 to 0.2
  • Magnesium – 0.03 to 0.04

The Ductile Cast Iron is one of the types of cast iron that classified according to the carbon percentage. The composition of the Ductile Cast Iron is

  • Carbon – 3.2 to 3.6
  • Silicon – 2.2 to 2.8
  • Manganese – 0.1 to 0.2
  • Magnesium – 0.03 to 0.04

The Chilled Cast Iron is one of the types of cast iron that classified according to the carbon percentage. The composition of the Chilled Cast Iron is

  • Carbon – 0.8 to 4
  • Silicon – 1 to 3
  • Phosporous – 0.063
  • Manganese – 1.04

The Gray Cast Iron is one of the types of cast iron that classified according to the carbon percentage. The composition of the Gray Cast Iron is

  • Carbon – 3 to 3.5
  • Silicon – 1 to 2.7
  • Phosporous – 0.4 to 1
  • Manganese – 0.15 to 1
  • Magnesium – 0.15 to 0.15

The White Cast Iron is one of the types of cast iron that classified according to the carbon percentage. The composition of the White Cast Iron is

  • Carbon – 0.15 to 2.3
  • Silicon – 0.85 to 1.2
  • Phosporous – 0.02
  • Manganese – >0.4
  • Magnesium – 0.02 to 0.15

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