Mechanical Basics

What are Soldering and Brazing?

Soldering and Brazing are the two different methods of joining similar or dissimilar materials temporarily or permanently. The heat plays a key role in the soldering and brazing process to create a hot spot and melt the materials for joining. In the two methods, the filler material will be used to join the two workpieces.

Additional to this, the range of soldering and brazing temperatures are the most important aspect in both joining processes.

Soldering:

Soldering and Brazing | Difference Between Soldering and Brazing

The Soldering Process is a temporary joint and a low-level application joining process that is used to join electronic components like copper wires, printed circuit boards (PCB), etc. In this process, the joining of materials is performed at a temperature of 361 degrees Fahrenheit (or 182 degrees Centigrade).

Brazing:

Brazing Process Brazing Process

The Brazing Process is a high level application where it is used in joining the mechanical components like brass, copper, aluminum, etc., so, the application of heating temperature is high compared to Soldering. In this process, the joining of materials is performed at a temperature more than 842 degrees Fahrenheit (or 450 degrees centigrade).

The soldering and brazing temperatures are different because soldering is used to join the soft materials whereas; brazing is used to join hard materials. We can also say that both the soldering and brazing process are working tools in joining the metals.

Also Read:

what can you learn from this post?

  • How Soldering and Brazing Works?
  • Types Of Brazing
  • Difference Between Soldering And Brazing
    • Working and Operation
    • Advantages
    • Disadvantages
    • Applications
  • Conclusion
  • Frequently Asked Questions

How Soldering And Brazing Works?

To generate heat and join the materials, it requires a set or equipment (whether it is small or large) to perform. So, let us get in to the subject and find the components, and their working principles individually.

Soldering Process:

As mentioned, soldering is a temporary joining process that works under a temperature of 361 degrees Fahrenheit to join the materials. The soldering process consists of

Soldering Holder Or Torch:

The Soldering Holder is the main part or device in the soldering process. It does consist of a long metallic tip. It converts the electrical energy into heat energy and helps to melt the filler material and join the two parts.

Filler Material:

The Filler Material is the combination of Tin and Lead (call alloy) where the soldering holder will melt it and joins the workpieces. Filler Material is also called as a Solder.

Flux Material:

During the joining process, there is a chance of oxidization which is an avoiding chemical process while joining. It leads to the damage of the joint by creating improper joint and holes in the welding. To prevent this oxidization, the flux material will be used while welding. The Flux material is a combination of Zinc Chloride, Resin, and Ammonium Chloride.

Before the joining process, the surfaces of the workpieces are cleaned properly to avoid dust and improper joining. Now, the filler (Tin and Lead Alloy) is dipped in flux material to avoid oxidization during joining. Besides, the holder is heated to gain the required temperature.

Now, the holder will be moved on to the workpieces along with filler material to perform the joining process. The soldering will be successfully done once the filler material is melted and allowed to join the two workpieces using the holder.

Note: The Soldering Process works under electrical energy and does not use any gases for developing the heat.

Brazing Process:

Brazing is a permanent joining process (or welding process) that works above a temperature of 842 degrees Fahrenheit (or 450 degrees centigrade) to join the materials. The normal brazing process consists of

Torch or Holder:

The Torch or Holder is the main component where the gas is allowed to pass through it and at the end of the torch, the fire will be produced. Using this fire, the workpiece surfaces are heated at first (before joining).

Filler Material:

Similar to the soldering process, the brazing also consists of filler material which is melted by torch and allowed onto the workpieces for joining. The filler material depends upon the type of workpiece material.

Flux Material:

The flux material is oxidization preventing paste while welding the workpieces.

Oxy-Acetylene Gas:

The brazing process is not at all an electrical component where the heat can generate using current. It uses the oxy-acetylene gas to produce the fire for melting the filler material and joining the workpieces.

Similar to the Soldering Process, the filler material is dipped in the flux material and allowed to feed over the workpieces along with the heat-producing holder.

As soon as the filler material is melted and dropped over to the workpieces, it solidifies and joining of workpieces completes. But in the brazing process, the surfaces of the workpieces are heated up to a little temperature to achieve good welding.

Note: The Brazing process is a permanent joining welding process that is used to join metals.

Also Read:

Types Of Brazing:

The Brazing is divided into different types according to its heating type whether it is localized heating or diffuse heating. The types of brazing process according to the localized heating are

  • Torch Brazing
  • Induction Brazing
  • Resistance Brazing

The types of brazing process according to the diffuse heating are

  • Furnace Brazing
  • Dip Brazing

Torch Brazing:

The Torch Brazing is a general brazing process where it does consist of the holder, flux, filler material, and gas to produce the flame. The torch brazing is a low-budget and simple brazing process.

Induction Brazing:

Soldering and Brazing | Difference Between Soldering and Brazing

Induction Brazing is a high-frequency induction process. It uses the adjacent coil producing Alternate Current (AC) to develop the heat over the workpiece and join. It is a fast process. The workpieces are filled with filler materials before introducing the current. Then it is placed in the adjacent coil to perform a joining operation.

Resistance Brazing:

The Resistance Brazing is similar to Spot Welding where the electrical resistance is used to join the two metals (read spot welding process). The electrical current is passed over to the workpieces to join them. It is relatively fast and produces permanent joints.

Furnace Brazing:

Soldering and Brazing | Difference Between Soldering and Brazing

The Furnace Brazing is a type of diffuse heating type. The workpieces and filler material are allowed into a furnace (heat-producing area); due to the heat, the filler material will meltdown and deposits over the joining spots to join them permanently. This brazing process will prevent oxidization and produces good finishing.

Dip Brazing:

Soldering and Brazing | Difference Between Soldering and Brazing

The Dip Brazing is another type of diffuse heating type whereas;The flux is in the form of molten metal. The whole workpieces are assembled in a way that the joining spots can be exposed to the molten metal and filler materials so, it can easy to join the workpieces.

The whole assembled workpieces are dipped into the vessel (consists heat agents, molten flux, filler materials), as soon as it is dipped, the filler material and molten metal will be observed over to the surfaces of workpieces. The joint is cooled to permanent joining.

Difference Between Soldering and Brazing:

There is a lot of difference between soldering and brazing. The difference between soldering and brazing process according to their Working and Operation are

Soldering Process Brazing Process
1. The temperature range used for Soldering is 182 degrees centigrade which is less than brazing temperature. 1. The temperature range used for Brazing is 450 degrees centigrade and more which is greater than soldering temperature.
2. It uses Electrical Energy to produce heat. 2. Brazing uses gas and fire to produce heat.
3. Uses Filler Material and Flux material 3. Uses Filler Material and Flux material
4. The Flux material is made up of Tin and Lead. 4. The Flux material is made up of Copper and Zinc.
5. No preheating is required (but we can pre-heat the soldering machine for better quality) 5. Pre-heating of the brazing machine is required to acquire the joining temperature.

The difference between soldering and brazing process according to their Advantages are

Soldering Process Brazing Process
1. Soldering can be operated easily and no technical man-power is required 1. Brazing can be a little harder to operate compare to soldering and it requires skilled labour.
2. The soldering operation is faster. 2. Even the brazing operation is also faster but not as fast as soldering.
3. The soldering is cheaper in use. 3. The brazing is cost-effective compared to soldering but they are cheap compared to other welding processes.

The difference between the soldering and brazing process according to their Disadvantages are

Soldering Process Brazing Process
1. The joints are temporary which is easy to remove and weak in nature to brazing joints. 1. The brazing joints are permanent and stronger but not as strong as the base metal (the workpiece material) compared to soldering joints.
2. The Flux material contains toxic components. 2. The Flux material contains toxic components.

The difference between soldering and brazing process according to its Applications are

Soldering Process Brazing Process
1. The Soldering process is used to join the soft materials and cannot be used to join metals like cast iron, steel, etc. 1. The Brazing Process is used to join the hard materials and cannot be applied on the metals like copper wires, electronic parts, etc.
2. The Soldering is used to join the soft and electronic components. 2. The Brazing is used to join only ferrous metals.
3. It is used in refrigeration parts and other electronic devices. 3. It is used to join the machine tools components, machines, etc.

Conclusion:

As soldering and brazing are metal joining processes but there are lots of differences when it comes to the working operation, advantages, and applications. The only similar aspect that combines both soldering and brazing is the working principle. In the two processes, the soldering and brazing temperatures to produce the heat plays a major role.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is the temperature range used in Soldering?

The temperature range used in Soldering is 361 degrees Fahrenheit or 182 degrees Centigrade and below.

2. What is the temperature range used in Brazing?

The temperature range used in Brazing is 842 degrees Fahrenheit or 450 degrees centigrade and above.

3. What is Flux material used in Soldering?

The Flux material that is used in soldering is Zinc Oxide, Ammonium Oxide, and Resin. The flux material is also called as Paste.

4. What is Filler material in Soldering?

The Filler materials used in soldering are Tin and Lead. Both combine to form a filler material in the soldering. It is soft and melts easily.

5. Do Soldering is a permanent or temporary joint?

The soldering joint is a temporary joint where it can be removed by exposure to heat.

6. Do Brazing is a permanent or temporary welding?

The Brazing Joint is a permanent joint that is hard to remove.

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