Mechanical Basics

What Is An Air Conditioning System?

Air Conditioning System (also known as Air Conditioner or simply AC or A/C) is a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Device (simply called as HVAC device) used to create and maintain comfortable temperature, relative humidity, and air purity in enclosed space. This process is generally implemented to maintain individual comfort level; precisely, an Air Conditioner will cool down or warm up an interior space by removing the heat and moisture from the environment or space. The basic cycle or ideal cycle of air conditioner is Vapour Compression Refrigeration Cycle.

Air Conditioning System

AC’s operate essentially by drawing warm air into a machine and dispersing cold air. In this process, the evaporation of another liquid, which is known as the refrigerant cools the fluid (often water or air) in order to maintain a cycle and its reaction. Using chemicals, your air conditioner swiftly transforms the gas into a liquid and vice versa, removing the heated air inside your home, which is then disposed to outside.

Also Read

Refrigeration Cycle – Its Processes, Types, Working, Advantages, Applications and FAQ’s

Apart from Domestic Purposes, ACs are also used in industrial applications to ensure the correct operation of equipment or machinery that needs to operate under specific environmental conditions or alternatively to be able to perform certain industrial processes, such as welding, which generates a significant amount of heat that needs to be disposed of somehow. An air conditioning system must be effective regardless of external climatic conditions and must include control over four fundamental variables:

  1. Air Temperature
  2. Humidity
  3. Speed And
  4. Quality

Basic Components of an Air Conditioning System

To run any type of device, it is necessary to add the components or parts to do their principle working. So, the main components of an Air Conditioning System are

  1. Compressor
  2. Condenser Coil
  3. Thermostat
  4. Evaporator
  5. Air Handler and Blow Unit
  6. Expansion Valve

Let us have a look at these all components in detail.

Components of Air Conditioning System

1. Compressor:

The compressor is a mechanical device and it can also be called System’s Engine since it operates with a lubricant that quickly converts gas into a liquid. “Its principal role is to transform low-pressure gas into high-pressure, and high-temperature gas “. Compressor increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume and gap areas between molecules are shrunk down during its operation by a created electrified gas. This electrified gas, also known as a refrigerant, exits the compressor and enters the condenser. There are different types of compressors and they are as follows

  • Reciprocating compressors
  • Scroll compressors
  • Rotary compressors

2. Condenser Coil:

The condenser coil is used to “cool down the high-pressure gas and transforms it into a liquid by using it fan”. The resulting product was employed by the evaporator to perform the operation. The compressor and condenser are located on the exterior of the home.

3. Thermostat:

The thermostats are used to maintain the temperature of air conditioning systems because it regulates the heat energy inside and outside of an air conditioning system to keep the temperature stable. thermostat can be set manually or automatically, as required to our design.

4. Evaporator:

Evaporators are commonly located near the furnace inside the home, linked to the condenser by a very narrow pipe in an Air Conditioning System. The high-pressure gas is converted into low-pressure liquid for the air conditioner. Due to the decreased pressure, the liquid is subsequently transformed to gas. The fluid or refrigerant is what removes heat from and cools it. The fluid is released as a gas by the evaporator in order to be compressed again by the compressor. All of this operates in a cyclical procedure.

5. Air Handler and Blowing Unit:

The components of an air conditioning system work together to pull air to the evaporator and circulate cool air around the room. The passage of airflow in the room is facilitated by a duct system.

This quick phase change is referred to as flashing, and it assists the following piece of equipment in the circuit, the evaporator, in performing its intended job.

6. Expansion Valve

Even though the refrigerant has released the majority of its heat as it exits the condenser coil, it is still too hot to re-enter the evaporator coil. As a result, the expansion valve functions by lowering the pressure of the refrigerant and cooling it even further. The expansion valve returns the cold refrigerant to the evaporator coil, where it takes up additional heat from the air within your house and the cycle begins again.

Working of Air Conditioning System

The basic working principle of the air conditioner is simple and very similar to ordinary refrigerators (that heat is collected within the system and then evacuated from the space). As it is already said that the ideal cycle or basic cycle that air conditioning system is Vapour Compression Refrigeration System. We already covered few articles on them, please refer links below to learn about them.

Also Read

So, the concept of how an air conditioning works step by step process:

  • The warm air from the room is drawn into the system first.
  • This air circulates through the cold evaporator pipes within, chilling the air and eliminating excess moisture with the help of a dehumidifier.
  • Meanwhile, the coolant flowing through the chiller pipes absorbs heat from the passing air and evaporates, transforming it from a chilly liquid to a heated gas.
  • This warm air is sent outside, while the coolant travels via a compressor unit and a condenser, converting it back to a cool liquid.
  • The cold air is then again circulated back into the space, where it mixes with the air and lowers the temperature and humidity.

A variety of components inside a unit change the condition, pressure, and temperature of the refrigerant, allowing the unit to do its work and chill the area.

Advantages of Air Conditioning System

  • Fewer Insects and Parasites:

Air conditioner filters are more effective than open windows at keeping pests away. This not only keeps you safe, but it also keeps your house clean.

  • Better Sleep:

Humans really sleep better in cooler temperatures, and air conditioning is indeed the proper option.

  • Improves Work Performance:

Air conditioning may genuinely boost employee comfort, keeping their brains fresh and ready to take on the day’s chores.

  • Reduces the risk of heat stroke:

Heat stroke has killed hundreds of individuals. The number one preventive factor against heat-related disease and mortality is air conditioning.

  • Less Noise:

Typically, doors and windows in air-conditioned rooms are closed. This means that less noise enters the space, keeping it cool and silent.

Other Advantages:

  • Lower temperatures indicate less perspiration, which reduces the risk of dehydration.
  • It reduced risk of Asthma Attacks because an air conditioner system not only decreases humidity in your house, but also lessen the quantity of pollen, mould, mildew, and other airborne outside allergens that can cause asthma symptoms.
  • As we are aware that regular exercise and keeping a healthy weight as crucial components of preventing asthma episodes. Air conditioning can aid in indoor exercise by creating a cool and pleasant environment.

Disadvantages of Air Conditioning System

  • Exacerbation of Respiratory Issues:

An abrupt shift in temperature has been demonstrated to aggravate the symptoms of a variety of respiratory disorders. Fortunately, you may considerably limit the likelihood of this problem by starting with a higher temperature and gradually lowering it.

  • Respiratory Tract Infections and Allergies:

If the air conditioner is not cleaned regularly, dust, germs, and pollen can accumulate in the air filters, causing respiratory tract infections and allergies.

  • Reduces your ability to tolerate heat:

Some people may be unable to tolerate heat outside if they spend too much time indoors.

  • The majority of air conditioners are not environmentally friendly:

Many air conditioners are not designed to be environmentally friendly. This can generate a slew of issues in your environment, including global warming.

Other Disadvantages

  • Air conditioners utilize a huge quantity of electricity.
  • Because coal-burning power plants generate a major portion of energy, air conditioning indirectly contributes to the production of greenhouse gases and other pollutants.
  • Spending more time in an air-conditioned area might cause your skin to lose moisture, making it sensitive and dry. It can also cause inflammation and dryness of the mucous membranes.

Applications of Air Conditioning System

  • Air conditioning systems are used in residences, offices, and other public stores.
  • Commercial air conditioning system is mainly used in corporate offices and their maintenances.
  • Air Conditioning System are extensively used in hospitals to incubate the patients.
  • Laptop, Mobile Air Conditioning Systems.

Industrial applications of Air Conditioners

  • Industrial air cooling is utilized in situations where heat from materials or processes must be eliminated on a big scale.
  • The goal of industrial air conditioning is to offer favorable environmental conditions so that essential operations and products may be carried out.
  • It should also bring some level of reassurance to those who work in the industries.


  • Printing industries
  • Textile industries
  • Manufacturing of precision parts
  • Semi-conductor industries
  • Pharmaceutics
  • Photographic materials
  • Computer rooms
  • Mines, power plants, etc.


A well-functioning air conditioning system is a critical component of a healthy, pleasant, and energy-efficient building. Depending on the location and size of a building, there are numerous types of AC systems. Because air conditioning systems consume the most energy in a building, it is critical to ensure that energy efficiency strategies are in place to reduce energy consumption, expenses, and greenhouse gas emissions.

This device not only manages the temperature of a place but also the humidity, by chilling the air by passing it through cold coils, allowing them to control the moisture in the air. Subsequently, air conditioning was applied to automobiles as well as to increase household comfort.

Frequently Asked Questions

How is Refrigeration different from an Air conditioning system?

  • Refrigeration draws cold air in, while air conditioning pushes it out.
  • Refrigeration employs just coolant, but air conditioning uses outside air as well.
  • Refrigeration focuses on chilling and freezing, whereas air conditioning focuses on cooling and dehumidifying the atmosphere.

How is an HVAC different from an AC?

HVAC stands for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning, whereas AC stands for air conditioner alone. Air conditioning (AC) is often used to chill the air in your house. The most prevalent types of air conditioners are window air conditioners and central air conditioners.

HVAC systems include gas furnaces, heat pumps, and air conditioning devices that operate to heat and cool your house. HVAC systems also provide ventilation and ductwork services.

Is air conditioning suitable for food storage or underground storage?

A widespread myth is that air conditioners are essential to keep food refrigerated in a cellar or bigger room. This is not correct because the aim of such a room is to keep all food and beverages at a considerably lower temperature at all times.

Refrigeration systems perform significantly better in this application, including chill rooms and cold rooms, where people are not expected to stay in the area but may come in and out.

When should an air conditioner be serviced?

Based on the complexity of your device, it should be maintained at least once a year, with occasional inspections up to four times a year. It is recommended that you schedule a consultation with a reputable HVAC service business that has industry certifications such as MSCA Star.

A qualified service provider can create a service plan to match your financial needs and keep your system working reliably based on the age, size, and usage of your system.

Why does the air conditioning system require more refrigerant every year?

An air conditioning system that requires frequent refrigerant recharge, as it starts leaking which has to be repaired. Leaking refrigerant not only reduces your unit’s cooling capacity and increases energy consumption, but it’s also extremely harmful to the environment. One of the most serious contributors to ozone depletion is the leakage of refrigerant gases into the environment.