Mechanical Basics

Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines

      Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines simply called FM&HM is the subject that deals with mechanics of the fluids and their machinery. As we observe, the name consists of two parts Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines (FM&HM) so, let us see why there are two names? and what are their definitions?

What is Fluid Mechanics?

        Fluid Mechanics (FM in FM&HM) is one of the subjects that deal with Fluids like water and vapour. It is the study of the behaviour of the fluids at different situations like velocity, and height. This subject will study the forces that act on them and their properties.

What is Hydraulic Machine?

        As we are studying Fluid Mechanics and it is necessary to know the Machines that work on Fluids and works for Fluids; So, combining them both can say that this subject is called Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines.

What can we learn on this page?

  1. Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines Syllabus.
  2. Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines Basics or Properties of Fluids.
  3. Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines Textbooks. (For Reference)

1. Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines Syllabus:

       Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines Syllabus is the particulars we read or learn in our semester or academics. As the syllabus will vary according to their University, so I listed out the important syllabus that everyone will follow, and this syllabus is equal to GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering).

  • Fluid Properties & Dimensional Analysis.
  • Fluid Statics.
  • Fluid Kinematics.
  • Fluid Dynamics.
  • Viscous Incompressible Flow (Internal & External).
  • Turbo-machinery.

2. Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines Basics or Properties of Fluids:


Density can be defined as the mass per unit volume of a liquid. It is also called the mass density. It is denoted by p (call as rho). It is expressed in kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m^3).

Specific weight:

It is the ratio of the weight per unit volume of a liquid. It is also called the specific volume. It is expressed as Newton per cubic meter (N/m^3).


It is defined as the resistance offered to the movement of a liquid layer on another. It is also called Dynamic Viscosity or Absolute Viscosity.

Kinematic Viscosity:

It is the ratio of Dynamic Viscosity to the Density of the liquid.


It is the property by which liquid undergoes a change in volume with pressure. It is reciprocal to the bulk modulus of elasticity.

Surface Tension:

It is the property of the liquid that enables it to resist tensile stress.

Its units are Newton per meter (N/m).

Pascal’s Law:

The law says that the intensity of the pressure of a fluid at any point is the same in all directions at rest.


The pressure is the force that acts on the fluids per unit area. It can be measure in Newton per cubic meter (N/m^3).

Atmospheric Pressure:

The normal pressure exerted by the air in the atmosphere is called atmospheric pressure.

It is also known as Barometric pressure.

The standard atmospheric pressure will be 760 mm of Hg.

Gauge Pressure and Vacuum Pressure:

The gauge pressure is the pressure of a fluid that can be measured by using a Device called a Gauge.

Vacuum Pressure is the pressure that is less than the Atmospheric Pressure.

Actual Pressure:

The actual pressure is the sum of the Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure

Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines

What is Buoyancy? 

It is the force equal to the liquid weight displaced by the body when a body is immersed wholly or partially in a liquid. This statement is known as the Archimedes principle.

The force tending to lift-up the body is called the Buoyancy force.

The point at which the buoyant force is supposed to act is known as the Centre of Buoyancy.


The orifice is the device or an opening that looks like a pipe. It is used to restrict the flow of the fluids through the pipe.

3. Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines Textbooks (For Reference):

          Student needs to refer the textbooks to grab the knowledge that not even found in the classroom teaching. When the student starts referring to the textbooks then the seed of knowledge will start growing in oneself. So, do not stick to the classroom notes but also try to refer to the textbooks that increase the knowledge.

Here I am mentioning a few references, please go through them.

  • Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines by R K Bansal.
  • Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines by Modi and Seth.
  • Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines by K Subramanya.
  • Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines by R S Khurmi
  • Fluid Mechanics and Machinery by Dr. G K Vijayaraghavan and Dr. S Sundaravalli.

Note: Please refer to the syllabus in each textbook before you refer to or purchase.

Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines

Mechanical Basics

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